Extractive Industries

The extractive industries physically extract metals, minerals and aggregates from the earth. Extraction industries include the mining, quarrying, dredging, oil and gas extraction industries.

Mining can be defined as the extraction of metals and solid fossil fuel, and extraction can take place in either an underground mine or in an above ground mine, known as a surface mine, ‘open-cast mine’, ‘open-pit’ or just ‘pit’.

Quarrying can be defined as the extraction of aggregates and industrial minerals above ground.

Dredging can be defined as the extraction of marine aggregate underwater.

Oil extraction can be defined as the extraction of liquid fossil fuel, and

gas extraction can be defined as the extraction of gaseous fossil fuel.

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